Few events in life have greater tax consequences than changing your marital status. If you file jointly, you're affected by your spouse's income, deductions, and other tax items. If you file separately, you generally cannot take tax credits, such as the child and dependent care credit, and you can't claim the standard deduction unless your spouse does the same. If you live in a community property state, you may have to claim some of your spouse's income and deductions, even when you file separately.
You may have heard of the "marriage tax" or the "marriage penalty." There is no specific tax for married people. The so-called marriage penalty is the higher total tax some taxpayers may pay due to provisions in the tax code.
For example, you can use $3,000 of capital losses to offset ordinary income, such as wages, every year. A single person can deduct up to $3,000 against ordinary income and a married couple together can only deduct up to $3,000 against ordinary income. If the married couple files separately, they can each only deduct $1,500 of capital loss against ordinary income.
Most limits and phase-out ranges are higher for a married couple than for a single person, but they may be less than two times the amounts for a single person. The child tax credit is one example - the credit begins to be phased out for a single person with an income of $200,000 (for 2018). For a married couple, the credit starts to phase out at $400,000 - considerably less than twice the level for single taxpayers.
If you are married and living with your spouse, you must file as married filing jointly or married filing separately. You cannot choose to file as single or head of household. However, if you were separated from your spouse on December 31, 2018 by a separate maintenance decree, you may choose to file as single.
You may be able to file as a head of household instead of as married if you meet certain qualifications to be considered unmarried. You must be a U.S. citizen or resident the entire year, not file with your spouse, pay more than half the cost of keeping up your home during the year, and have your child in your home for more than half of the year. The child must be your dependent, or a child who would have been your dependent except that you released the dependency to the other parent. In addition, your spouse must not have lived in the home during the last six months of the year.
When you get married, it's a good time to check your income tax withholding and make sure you're not having too much - or too little - withheld from your paycheck. It is important to file a new Form W-4, with the Married checkbox selected, with your employer after your marriage. When you do, it may be equally important to adjust the amount of withholding on the Form W-4. For example, if you and your spouse make similar incomes, you may need to have more income tax withheld to avoid a potential tax bill next year.
On the other hand, if your spouse has little or no income, your income tax bill when you file jointly may be considerably less. You may need to have less income tax withheld to avoid having the IRS hold too much of your money all year.
The smart way to fill out your Form W-4 is to estimate your tax liability as closely as possible for the current year, and then have an amount as close to your liability as possible withheld throughout the year. If something changes during the year; for example, if you quit a job or buy a house, you can estimate your tax liability again and make any necessary adjustments.
February 10 — Social security, Medicare, and withheld income tax
File Form 941 for the fourth quarter of 2018. This due date applies only if you deposited the tax for the quarter timely, properly, and in full.
February 10 — Certain small employers
File Form 944 to report social security and Medicare taxes and withheld income tax for 2018. This due date applies only if you deposited the tax for the year timely, properly, and in full.
February 10 — Farm employers
File Form 943 to report social security and Medicare taxes and withheld income tax for 2018. This due date applies only if you deposited the tax for the year timely, properly, and in full.
February 10 — Federal unemployment tax
File Form 940 for 2018. This due date applies only if you deposited the tax for the year timely, properly, and in full.
February 10 — Employees who work for tips
If you received $20 or more in tips during January, report them to your employer Details
February 15 — All businesses
Give annual information statements to recipients of certain payments you made during 2018 Details
February 15 — Social security, Medicare, and withheld income tax
If the monthly deposit rule applies, deposit the tax for payments in January.
February 15 — All employers
Begin withholding income tax from the pay of any employee who claimed exemption from withholding in 2018, but did not give you Form W4 to continue the exemption this year.
February 15 — Individuals
If you claimed exemption from income tax withholding last year on the Form W-4, you must file a new Form W-04 by this date to continue your exemption for another year Details
February 18 — Everyone
Federal Holiday (Washington's Birthday) Details
February 28 — All businesses
File information returns (for example, Forms 1099) for certain payments you made during 2018.
February 28 — Payers of gambling winnings.
File Form 1096 along with Copy A of all the Forms W2G you issued for 2018. If you file Forms W2G electronically, your due date for filing them with the IRS will be extended to March 31. The due date for giving the recipient these forms remains January 31.
February 28 — All employers
File Form W3, Transmittal of Wage and Tax Statements, along with Copy A of all the Forms W2 you issued for 2018. If you file Forms W2 electronically, your due date for filing them with the SSA will be extended to March 31. The due date for giving the recipient these forms remains January 31.
February 28 — Large food and beverage establishment employers
File Form 8027, Employer's Annual Information Return of Tip Income and Allocated Tips. Use Form 8027T, Transmittal of Employer's Annual Information Return of Tip Income and Allocated Tips, to summarize and transmit Forms 8027 if you have more than one establishment. If you file Forms 8027 electronically, your due date for filing them with the IRS will be extended to March 31.