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IRS Form 8843 Statement for Exempt Individuals and Individuals with a Medical Condition, For use by alien individuals only, is used to exclude days of presence in the U.S. for certain individuals. According to the instructions for the form, it would either be mailed to the IRS alone or with Form 1040NR or 1040NR-EZ. 

Per IRS Publication 519 U.S. Tax Guide for Aliens, starting on page 5:

Form 8843. If you exclude days of presence in the United States because you fall into any of the following categories, you must file a fully completed Form 8843.
  • You were unable to leave the United States as planned because of a medical condition or problem.
  • You were temporarily in the United States as a teacher or trainee on a "J" or "Q" visa.
  • You were temporarily in the United States as a student on an "F", "J", "M", or "Q" visa.
  • You were a professional athlete competing in a charitable sports event.
Attach Form 8843 to your 2016 income tax return. If you do not have to file a return, send Form 8843 to the Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service Center, Austin, TX 73301-0215, by the due date for filing Form 1040NR or Form 1040NR-EZ. The due date for filing is discussed in chapter 7.
 

To enter information for Form 8843:

  1. From within your TaxAct return (Online or Desktop), click on the Federal tab. On smaller devices, click the menu icon in the upper left-hand corner, then select Federal
  2. Click Basic Information to expand the category and then click Form 8843 - Exempt Individuals and Individuals with a Medical Condition
  3. The program will proceed with the interview questions for you to enter or review the appropriate information

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