The term "capital asset" for tax purposes applies to almost everything you own and use for personal or investment purposes. A capital gain or loss occurs when you sell a capital asset.

Here are 10 facts from the IRS on capital gains and losses:

  1. Almost everything you own and use for personal purposes, pleasure or investment is a capital asset. Capital assets include your home, household furnishings, and stocks and bonds that you hold as investments.
  2. A capital gain or loss is the difference between your basis of an asset and the amount you receive when you sell it. Your basis is usually what you paid for the asset.
  3. You must include all capital gains in your income.
  4. You may deduct capital losses on the sale of investment property. You cannot deduct losses on the sale of personal-use property.
  5. Capital gains and losses are long-term or short-term, depending on how long you hold on to the property. If you hold the property more than one year, your capital gain or loss is long-term. If you hold it one year or less, the gain or loss is short-term.
  6. If your long-term gains exceed your long-term losses, the difference between the two is a net long-term capital gain. If your net long-term capital gain is more than your net short-term capital loss, you have a 'net capital gain.'
  7. The tax rates that apply to net capital gains are generally lower than the tax rates that apply to other types of income. The maximum capital gains rate for most people in 2012 is 15 percent. For lower-income individuals, the rate may be 0 percent on some or all of their net capital gains. Rates of 25 or 28 percent can also apply to special types of net capital gains.
  8. If your capital losses are greater than your capital gains, you can deduct the difference between the two on your tax return. The annual limit on this deduction is $3,000, or $1,500 if you are married filing separately.
  9. If your total net capital loss is more than the limit you can deduct, you can carry over the losses you are not able to deduct to next year's tax return. You will treat those losses as if they occurred that year.
  10. Form 8949, Sales and Other Dispositions of Capital Assets, will help you calculate capital gains and losses. You will carry over the subtotals from this form to Schedule D, Capital Gains and Losses. If you e-file your tax return, the software will do this for you.

For more information about capital gains and losses, see the Schedule D instructions or Publication 550, Investment Income and Expenses. They are both available at IRS.gov or by calling 800-TAX-FORM (800-829-3676).

As you answer simple questions about capital gains and losses, TaxACT completes Form 8949 and Schedule D for you. If you need it, help is available every step of the way. Start your return now.

Additional IRS Resources:

September 2015
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Upcoming Tax Dates

September 7 Everyone
Federal Holiday (Labor Day) - Details

September 10 Employees who work for tips
If you received $20 or more in tips during August, report them to your employer - Details

September 10 Communications and air transportation taxes under the alternative method.
Deposit the tax included in amounts billed or tickets sold during the first 15 days of August.

September 14 Regular method taxes
Deposit the tax included in amounts billed or tickets sold during the last 16 days of August.

September 15 Individuals
Make a payment of your 2015 estimated tax if you are not paying your income tax for the year through withholding (or will not pay in enough tax that way). Use Form 1040-ES. This is the third installment - Details

September 15 Corporations
File a 2014 calendar year income tax return (Form 1120) and pay any tax, interest, and penalties due. This due date applies only if you timely requested an automatic 6-month extension - Details

September 15 S Corporations
File a 2014 calendar year income tax return (Form 1120S) and pay any tax due. This due date applies only if you timely requested an automatic 6-month extension - Details

September 15 Partnerships
File a 2014 calendar year return (Form 1065). This due date applies only if you were given an additional 5-month extension - Details

September 15 Corporations
Deposit the third installment of estimated income tax for 2015 - Details

September 15 Social security, Medicare, and withheld income tax
If the monthly deposit rule applies, deposit the tax for payments in August.

September 15 Nonpayroll withholding
If the monthly deposit rule applies, deposit the tax for payments in August.

September 25 Communications and air transportation taxes under the alternative method.
Deposit the tax included in amounts billed or tickets sold during the last 16 days of August.

September 29 Regular method taxes
Deposit the tax for the first 15 days of September.

September 29 Regular method taxes (special September deposit rule)
Deposit the tax for the period beginning September 16 and ending September 26.

September 29 Communications and air transportation taxes under the alternative method (special September deposit rule).
Deposit the tax included in amounts billed or tickets sold during the period beginning September 1 and ending September 11.

September 30 Wagering tax
File Form 730 and pay the tax on wagers accepted during August.

September 30 Heavy highway vehicle use tax
File Form 2290 and pay the tax for vehicles first used in August.

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