10 Facts About Capital Gains and Losses
February 19, 2010 – TT-2010-35
Have you heard of capital gains and losses? If not, you may want to read up on them because they might have an impact on your tax return. The IRS wants you to know these ten facts about gains and losses and how they could affect your tax situation.
- Almost everything you own and use for personal purposes, pleasure or investment is a capital asset.
- When you sell a capital asset, the difference between the amount you sell it for and your basis – which is usually what you paid for it – is a capital gain or a capital loss.
- You must report all capital gains.
- You may deduct capital losses only on investment property, not on property held for personal use.
- Capital gains and losses are classified as long-term or short-term, depending on how long you hold the property before you sell it. If you hold it more than one year, your capital gain or loss is long-term. If you hold it one year or less, your capital gain or loss is short-term.
- If you have long-term gains in excess of your long-term losses, you have a net capital gain to the extent your net long-term capital gain is more than your net short-term capital loss, if any.
- The tax rates that apply to net capital gain are generally lower than the tax rates that apply to other income. For 2009, the maximum capital gains rate for most people is15%. For lower-income individuals, the rate may be 0% on some or all of the net capital gain. Special types of net capital gain can be taxed at 25% or 28%.
- If your capital losses exceed your capital gains, the excess can be deducted on your tax return and used to reduce other income, such as wages, up to an annual limit of $3,000, or $1,500 if you are married filing separately.
- If your total net capital loss is more than the yearly limit on capital loss deductions, you can carry over the unused part to the next year and treat it as if you incurred it in that next year.
- Capital gains and losses are reported on Schedule D, Capital Gains and Losses, and then transferred to line 13of Form 1040.
For more information about reporting capital gains and losses, see the Schedule D instructions, Publication 550, Investment Income and Expenses or Publication 17, Your Federal Income Tax. All forms and publications are available at IRS.gov or by calling 800-TAX-FORM (800-829-3676).
TaxACT Free Federal and Deluxe editions include Schedule D and walk users through the calculations and tax implications of capital gains and losses.
TaxACT Deluxe users can import their transactions from GainsKeeper to calculate capital gains or export Schedule D from GainsKeeper to TaxACT for e-filing.
TaxACT Deluxe also includes Capital Gain Summary Reports that allow users to review all transactions during the year in one convenient list. Separate, printable reports for the short term and long term can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically by date sold.
- Publication 17, Your Federal Income Tax (PDF 2015.9K)
- Publication 550, Investment Income and Expenses (PDF 516K)
- Publication 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets (PDF 321K)
- Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax (PDF 367K)
- Publication 564, Mutual Fund Distributions (PDF 178K)
- Publication 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts (PDF 133K)
- Publication 527, Residential Rental Property (Including Rental of Vacation Homes) (PDF 187K)